Global colistin use : A review of the emergence of resistant Enterobacterales and the impact on their genetic basis
The dramatic global rise of MDR and XDR Enterobacterales in human medicine forced clinicians to the reintroduction of colistin as last-resort drug. Meanwhile, colistin is used in the veterinary medicine since its discovery leading to a steadily increasing prevalence of resistant isolates in the livestock and meat-based food sector. Consequently, transmission of resistant isolates from animals to humans, acquisition via food, and exposure to colistin in the clinic are reasons for the increased prevalence of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales in humans in the last decades. Initially, resistance mechanisms were caused by mutations in chromosomal genes. However, since the discovery in 2015, the focus has shifted exclusively to mobile colistin resistances (mcr). This review will advance the understanding of chromosomal-mediated resistance mechanisms in Enterobacterales. We provide an overview about genes involved in colistin resistance and the current global situation of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales. A comparison of the global colistin use in veterinary and human medicine highlights the effort to reduce colistin sales in veterinary medicine under the One Health approach. In contrast, it uncovers the alarming rise in colistin consumption in human medicine due to the emergence of MDR Enterobacterales, which might be an important driver for the increasing emergence of chromosome-mediated colistin resistance.