Article CC BY 4.0
refereed
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Comparison of phenotypical antimicrobial resistance between clinical and non-clinical e. coli isolates from broilers, turkeys and calves in four european countries

ORCID
0000-0001-7519-6931
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 4 Biological Safety, Unit 43 Epidemiology, Zoonoses and Antimicrobial Resistance, Germany
Mesa-Varona, Octavio;
Affiliation
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Laboratory of Lyon, Antibiotic Resistance and Bacterial Virulence Unit, University of Lyon, 31 avenue Tony Garnier, Lyon, France
Mader, Rodolphe;
Affiliation
Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Department of Epidemiological Sciences, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
Velasova, Martina;
Affiliation
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Laboratory of Lyon, Antibiotic Resistance and Bacterial Virulence Unit, University of Lyon, 31 avenue Tony Garnier, Lyon, France
Madec, Jean-Yves;
Affiliation
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Fougeres Laboratory, Fougeres, France
Granier, Sophie A.;
Affiliation
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Fougeres Laboratory, Fougeres, France
Perrin-Guyomard, Agnes;
Affiliation
Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI), Department of Animal Health and Food Safety, Research Section Food Safety and Animal Health, Oslo, Norway
Norstrom, Madelaine;
Affiliation
Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), Reference Laboratories, Resistance to Antibiotics Unit Monitoring of Resistance to Antibiotics, Department Method Standardisation, Berlin, Germany
Kaspar, Heike;
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 4 Biological Safety, Unit 43 Epidemiology, Zoonoses and Antimicrobial Resistance, Germany
Grobbel, Mirjam;
Affiliation
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), Fougeres Laboratory, Fougeres, France
Jouy, Eric;
Affiliation
Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Department of Epidemiological Sciences, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
Anjum, Muna F.;
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 4 Biological Safety, Unit 43 Epidemiology, Zoonoses and Antimicrobial Resistance, Germany
Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

Livestock data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are commonly collected from bacterial populations of clinical and non-clinical isolates. In contrast to data on non-clinical isolates from livestock, data on clinical isolates are not harmonized in Europe. The Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) method was applied to overcome the lack of harmonization of laboratory methods and interpretation rules between monitoring systems. Statistical analyses were performed to identify associations between the isolate type (clinical vs. non-clinical) and resistance to four antimicrobials (ampicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and nalidixic acid) per animal category in Germany and France. Additional statistical analyses comparing clinical and non-clinical isolates were performed with the available data on the same antimicrobial panel and animal categories from the UK and Norway. Higher resistance prevalence was found in clinical isolates compared to non-clinical isolates from calves to all antimicrobials included in Germany and France. It was also found for gentamicin in broilers from France. In contrast, in broilers and turkeys from Germany and France and in broilers from the UK, a higher resistance level to ampicillin and tetracycline in non-clinical isolates was encountered. This was also found in resistance to gentamicin in isolates from turkeys in Germany. Resistance differed within countries and across years, which was partially in line with differences in antimicrobial use patterns. Differences in AMR between clinical and non-clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are associated with animal category (broiler, calf, and turkey) and specific antimicrobials. The NRI method allowed comparing results of non-harmonized AMR systems and might be useful until international harmonization is achieved.

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