Challenges and Opportunities in the Use of High and Maximum Biocontainment Facilities in Developing and Licensing Risk Group 3 and Risk Group 4 Agent Veterinary Vaccines : Review
New solutions are necessary for the singular global health security threat formed by endemic, epidemic, and emerging/re-emerging zoonoses, coupled with epizootic and enzootic transboundary animal diseases (TADs). This One Health issue is related to the daily interactions between wildlife, domesticated and indigenous livestock, and humans primarily associated with global trade, transboundary co-movement of humans and diverse livestock/livestock products, and agriculture production intensification and penetration into previously uninhabited areas. The World Health Organization defines Risk Group 3 (RG-3) and RG-4 pathogens as mainly viruses but also bacteria that serve as the foundation for approximately 60% of emerging infectious diseases that are zoonoses. The World Organisation for Animal Health defines trade-notifiable TADs, and subsets of these are zoonotic. Livestock vaccination policies mainly focus on TADs that are promulgated by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and government agriculture agencies. The development, licensure, and product manufacturing of next-generation molecular-based RG-3 and RG-4 veterinary vaccines largely ignored by the global animal health biopharmaceutical sector can have an important positive impact on food security and One Health. There have been sharp increases in the global demand for livestock meat and milk products, especially in low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. This relatively recent market driver-coupled with scientific advances in human EID and zoonotic disease vaccine platform technologies and increases in the number of high (US biosafety level 3 agriculture) and maximum (US animal biosafety level 4) biocontainment facilities with supporting workforce capabilities-offers new investment opportunities to the animal health biopharmaceutical sector. Moreover, a growing number of One Health public-private partnerships have moved the net present value calculus in favor of the financial feasibility of RG-3 and RG-4 veterinary vaccine product development and licensure. This article highlights the challenges and opportunities in the use of high and maximum biocontainment facilities in developing and licensing RG-3 and RG-4 veterinary vaccines that are safe and effective against epizootic and enzootic TADs and zoonotic diseases.