Treatment of Yersinia similis with the cationic lipid DOTAP enhances adhesion to and invasion into intestinal epithelial cells – A proof-of-principle study
The monocationic quaternary surfactant DOTAP has been used for the delivery of nucleic acids and peptides into mammalian cells. This study tested the applicability of DOTAP for the enhancement of adhesion and invasion frequencies of Yersinia (Y.) similis to enable the analysis of the effects of low-pathogenic bacteria on intestinal epithelial cells. Incubation of Y. similis with DOTAP ahead of infection of C2BBe1 intestinal epithelial cells increased invasion and adhesion frequency four- and five-fold, respectively, in plating assays. Proteomic approaches confirmed the increased bacterial load on infected cells: analysis of protein extracts by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) revealed higher amounts of bacterial proteins present in the cells infected with DOTAP-treated bacteria. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of selected spots from gel-separated protein extracts confirmed the presence of both bacterial and human cell proteins in the samples. Label-free quantitative proteomics analysis identified 1170 human cell proteins and 699 bacterial proteins. Three times more bacterial proteins (279 vs. 93) were detected in C2BBe1 cells infected with DOTAP-treated bacteria compared to infections with untreated bacteria. Infections with DOTAP-treated Y. similis led to a significant upregulation of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2M in C2BBe1 cells. This points towards a stronger impact of the stress and infection responsive transcription factor AP-1 by enhanced bacterial load. DOTAP-treatment of uninfected C2BBe1 cells led to a significant downregulation of the transmembrane trafficking protein TMED10. The application of DOTAP could be helpful for investigating the impact of otherwise low adherent or invasive bacteria on cultivated mammalian cells without utilisation of genetic modifications.
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