Risk Assessment and Regulation of Plants Modified by Modern Biotechniques: Current Status and Future Challenges
The review describes the current status and future challenges of risk assessment and regulation of plants modified by modern biotechniques, namely genetic engineering and genome editing. It provides a general overview of the biosafety and regulation of genetically modified plants and details different regulatory frameworks with a focus on the European situation. The environmental risk and safety assessment of genetically modified plants is explained, and aspects of toxicological assessments are discussed, especially the controversial debate in Europe on the added scientific value of untargeted animal feeding studies. Because RNA interference (RNAi) is increasingly explored for commercial applications, the risk and safety assessment of RNAi-based genetically modified plants is also elucidated. The production, detection, and identification of genome-edited plants are described. Recent applications of modern biotechniques, namely synthetic biology and gene drives, are discussed, and a short outlook on the future follows.
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