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The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis: global perspectives on invasion history and ecology

Affiliation
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK
Roy, Helen;
Affiliation
Animal and Environment Research Group, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
Brown, Peter M. J.;
Affiliation
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
Adriaens, Tim;
GND
142062898
Affiliation
Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Department of Plant Crop Protection Entomology, Burgemeester Van Gansberghelaan 96, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Berkvens, Nick;
Affiliation
cE3c - ABG - Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes and Azorean Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Borges, Isabel;
Affiliation
Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
Clusella-Trullas, Susana;
Affiliation
Bumblebee Conservation Trust, Stirling, UK
Comont, Richard F.;
GND
172623901
Affiliation
Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
DeClercq, Patrick;
Affiliation
CABI, Delémont, Switzerland
Eschen, Rene;
Affiliation
Inra, UMR 1062 Cbgp, Montpellier, France
Estoup, Arnaud;
Affiliation
Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5305, USA
Evans, Edward W.;
Affiliation
Inra, UMR 1062 Cbgp, Montpellier, France
Facon, Benoit;
Affiliation
Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH, USA
Gardiner, Mary M.;
Affiliation
cE3c - ABG - Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes and Azorean Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Gil, Artur;
Affiliation
Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 2-15, Santiago, Chile
Grez, Audrey A.;
Affiliation
Inra, UMR 1355 ISA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, UMR ISA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; CNRS, UMR 7254 ISA, Sophia-Antipolis, France
Guillemaud, Thomas;
Affiliation
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Farlow Reference Library and Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Haelewaters, Danny;
GND
115662456
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Biological Control, Germany
Herz, Annette;
Affiliation
Crop Research Institute, Prague-Ruzyne, Czech Republic
Honek, Alois;
Affiliation
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Howe, Andy G.;
GND
1014513456
Affiliation
Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa; The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cape Town 7945, South Africa
Hui, Cang;
Affiliation
Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
Hutchison, William D.;
Affiliation
CABI, Delémont, Switzerland
Kenis, Marc;
Affiliation
Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
Koch, Robert L.;
GND
141173297
Affiliation
Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Zvolen, Slovakia
Kulfan, Ján;
Affiliation
Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, UK
Lawson Handley, Lori;
Affiliation
Inra, UMR 1355 ISA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, UMR ISA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; CNRS, UMR 7254 ISA, Sophia-Antipolis, France
Lombaert, Eric;
Affiliation
Department of Entomology, National Reference Centre, National Plant Protection Organization, P.O. Box 9102, 6700 HC Wageningen, The Netherlands
Loomans, Antoon;
Affiliation
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Losey, John;
Affiliation
Berezinskiy Biosphere Reserve, Domzheritsy, 211188 Lepel Distr., Vitebsk Reg., Belarus
Lukashuk, Alexander O.;
Affiliation
Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
Maes, Dirk;
Affiliation
University of Toulouse - ENFA, UMR CNRS/UPS/ENFA 5174 Évolution et diversité biologique, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France
Magro, Alexandra;
Affiliation
Biological and Environmental Sciences, Stirling University, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
Murray, Katie M.;
Affiliation
Plant Protection and Ecotoxicology Unit, Life Sciences Department, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, Rue de Liroux 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
Martin, Gilles San;
Affiliation
Crop Research Institute, Prague-Ruzyne, Czech Republic
Martinkova, Zdenka;
Affiliation
Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
Minnaar, Ingrid A.;
GND
1113557117
Affiliation
University of South Bohemia and Institute of Entomology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
Nedvěd, Oldřich;
Affiliation
A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, 33 Leninskiy Prospect, Moscow, Russia 119071
Orlova-Bienkowskaja, Marina J.;
Affiliation
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
Osawa, Naoya;
GND
142792527
Affiliation
Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria
Rabitsch, Wolfgang;
Affiliation
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Ravn, Hans Peter;
Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy
Rondoni, Gabriele;
Affiliation
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK
Rorke, Steph L.;
Affiliation
Baranovichi State University, Voykova str. 21, 225404 Baranovichi, Brest Reg., Belarus
Ryndevich, Sergey K.;
Affiliation
Biotechnology and Plant Health Division, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Bioforsk - NIBIO-Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Høgskoleveien 7, 1432 As, Norway
Saethre, May-Guri;
Affiliation
Maastricht Science Programme, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Sloggett, John J.;
Affiliation
cE3c - ABG - Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes and Azorean Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Soares, Antonio Onofre;
Affiliation
South African National Collection of Insects, ARC-Plant Protection Research, Private Bag X134, Queenswood, Pretoria 0121, South Africa
Stals, Riaan;
Affiliation
Biological and Environmental Sciences, Stirling University, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
Tinsley, Matthew C.;
Affiliation
Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, University of Liege, Passage des Déportés 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
Vandereycken, Axel;
Affiliation
Tobias Asserlaan 126, 5056 VD Berkel-Enschot, The Netherlands
van Wielink, Paul;
Affiliation
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK; Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Zvolen, Slovakia
Viglásová, Sandra;
GND
1136966188
Affiliation
Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Zvolen, Slovakia
Zach, Peter;
Affiliation
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Gubkin Str. 3, Moscow, Russia 119991
Zakharov, Ilya A.;
Affiliation
Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile
Zaviezo, Tania;
Affiliation
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Zhao, Zihua

The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H. axyridis within many countries has been met with considerable trepidation. It is a generalist top predator, able to thrive in many habitats and across wide climatic conditions. It poses a threat to biodiversity, particularly aphidophagous insects, through competition and predation, and in many countries adverse effects have been reported on other species, particularly coccinellids. However, the patterns are not consistent around the world and seem to be affected by many factors including landscape and climate. Research on H. axyridis has provided detailed insights into invasion biology from broad patterns and processes to approaches in surveillance and monitoring. An impressive number of studies on this alien species have provided mechanistic evidence alongside models explaining large-scale patterns and processes. The involvement of citizens in monitoring this species in a number of countries around the world is inspiring and has provided data on scales that would be otherwise unachievable. Harmonia axyridis has successfully been used as a model invasive alien species and has been the inspiration for global collaborations at various scales. There is considerable scope to expand the research and associated collaborations, particularly to increase the breadth of parallel studies conducted in the native and invaded regions. Indeed a qualitative comparison of biological traits across the native and invaded range suggests that there are differences which ultimately could influence the population dynamics of this invader. Here we provide an overview of the invasion history and ecology of H. axyridis globally with consideration of future research perspectives. We reflect broadly on the contributions of such research to our understanding of invasion biology while also informing policy and people.

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