Pig manure systems in Germany and China and the impact on nutrient flow
Germany and China use different stable systems for fattening pigs. Widespread systems in Germany are closed stables with slatted or partly slatted floor, which produce liquid manure (a mixture of urine, faeces, and cleaning water) whereas in China open stables with closed concrete floors are used with separate collection of faeces and urine. Based on data from literature and own analyses nutrient flows of both systems are calculated. The Chinese manure system or mechanized belt or V-shaped pit floor systems with faeces/urine separation are more effective to separate solids, nutrients, carbon, and heavy metal than mechanical separation from liquid manure. The separation rates can be up to 88% for the solids, 67% for nitrogen, 93% for phosphorus, 60% for potassium, 94% for magnesium, 97% for cupper, and 98% for zinc. The faeces can be used for composting to produce a market product.