Use of the photo-micronucleus assay in Chinese hamster V79 cells to study photochemical genotoxicity
Photochemical genotoxicity can be detected using appropriately adapted versions of most of the standard in vitro genotoxicity assays. The most sensitive approach to detect potentially photogenotoxic agents seems to be the investigation of DNA damage (DNA strand breakage, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei) in mammalian cells in vitro. In a previous paper, we proposed the use of the micronucleus assay in Chinese hamster V79 cells for this purpose. This assay was found suitable to detect various photogenotoxic compounds with different photoactivation mechanisms. In order to extend the experimental experiences with this assay, we present here further data from a screening mode testing of 16 different potential photosensitizers. The photoclastogenic and photocytotoxic potential of the compounds was investigated concomitantly. So far, all substances detected in the photo-micronucleus assay as photogenotoxins also exhibited photocytotoxic properties but not vice versa. Among the compounds tested in the present study, tiaprofenic acid, 5-MOP, angelicin, nitrazepam, bendroflumethiazide, and dacarbazine were photogenotoxic and photocytotoxic. Further, 6-mercaptopurine, a metabolite of azathioprine was positive for both endpoints, whereas azathioprine was found negative. Azathioprine seems to be an example of a compound which lacks photo(geno)toxic properties in vitro but may be converted to a photosensitizer by enzymatical metabolization. With the results obtained in this study, the data base for the photo-micronucleus assay was extended to 35 compounds, which were tested using the same protocol and the same irradiation conditions. The photogenotoxicity results of all these compounds are summarized and discussed in correlation to their different photoactivation mechanisms, photocytotoxicity and photocarcinogenicity.
Kersten, Birgit / Kasper, Peter / Brendler-Schwaab, Susanne Y. / et al: Use of the photo-micronucleus assay in Chinese hamster V79 cells to study photochemical genotoxicity. 2002.
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