Insights from the ground level? A content analysis review of multi-national Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradationenREDD + studies since twothousandandtenen2010
The REDD program ("Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation") was launched in 2007. Two years later it was modified into REDD+. Since then, numerous sub-national initiatives have implemented REDD+ or REDD+-like mechanisms. Now, shortly before the COP (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Conference of the Parties) in Paris 2015 it is timely and necessary to analyze insights and to draw upon lessons learned. This study reviews multi-national REDD+ studies by applying qualitative content analysis using the UNFCCC Warsaw Framework for categorization. Experiences with the implementation of core REDD+topics like institutional responsibility and results-based financing are mostly not encouraging.Monitoring systems require further development, and guidance for jurisdictional approaches is lacking. Experiences with reference levels, permanence and leakage have hardly been reported. More general topics like stakeholder participation, tenure clarification and biodiversity co-benefits are in turn more advanced. But these are not necessarily effects of REDD+components in the projects. The projects obviously offer a platform to advance classical development issues. We conclude that financial signals from the upcoming COP in Paris are essential to encourage further development and implementation. This supports conclusions in accordancewith the UNFCCC session in Bonn 2015 stating that methodologies are now complete and implementation must begin. Additional conclusions are drawn for specific topics of the Warsaw Framework. Authors claim that REDD+should stimulate and support transformational change.