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refereed
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Ambient and substrate energy influence decomposer diversity differentially across trophic levels

Affiliation
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III), Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Rauhenebrach, Germany
Kriegel, Peter;
Affiliation
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III), Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Rauhenebrach, Germany
Vogel, Sebastian;
Affiliation
School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL, Bern University of Applied Sciences BFH, Zollikofen, Switzerland
Angeleri, Romain;
Affiliation
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Praha 4, Czech Republic
Baldrian, Petr;
Affiliation
Department for Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
Borken, Werner;
Affiliation
French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment INRAE, ‘Forest Ecosystems’ Research Unit, Nogent-sur-Vernisson, France
Bouget, Christophe;
Affiliation
University of Toulouse, Engineering School of Purpan, UMR 1201 INRAE-INPT DYNAFOR, Toulouse, France
Brin, Antoine;
Affiliation
Am Greifenkeller 1b, Feuchtwangen, Germany
Bussler, Heinz;
Affiliation
Arma dei Carabinieri CUFA, Projects, Conventions, Environmental Education Office, Rome, Italy
Cocciufa, Cristiana;
Affiliation
Juistweg 1, Münster, Germany
Feldmann, Benedikt;
Affiliation
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Gossner, Martin M.;
Affiliation
School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL, Bern University of Applied Sciences BFH, Zollikofen, Switzerland
Haeler, Elena;
Affiliation
Forest Nature Conservation, Northwest German Forest Research Institute, Hann. Münden, Germany
Hagge, Jonas;
Affiliation
Reparto Carabinieri Biodiversità di Verona, Centro Nazionale Carabinieri Biodiversità “Bosco Fontana”, Marmirolo, Italy
Hardersen, Sönke;
GND
1138584436
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Forest Protection, Germany
Hartmann, Henrik;
Affiliation
Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden
Hjältén, Joakim;
Affiliation
Department for Forest Nature Conservation, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
Kotowska, Martyna M.;
Affiliation
School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences HAFL, Bern University of Applied Sciences BFH, Zollikofen, Switzerland
Lachat, Thibault;
Affiliation
University of Toulouse, Engineering School of Purpan, UMR 1201 INRAE-INPT DYNAFOR, Toulouse, France
Larrieu, Laurent;
Affiliation
Departamento de Ecología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
Leverkus, Alexandro B.;
Affiliation
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States
Macagno, Anna L. M.;
Affiliation
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III), Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Rauhenebrach, Germany
Mitesser, Oliver;
Affiliation
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III), Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Rauhenebrach, Germany
Müller, Jörg;
Affiliation
Department for Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
Obermaier, Elisabeth;
Affiliation
Department of Bioscience and Territory, Università degli Studi del Molise, Pesche, Italy
Parisi, Francesco;
Affiliation
Institute for Applied Science, University of Applied Forest Sciences Rottenburg, Rottenburg, Germany
Pelz, Stefan;
Affiliation
Chair of Forest Botany, Institute of Forest Botany and Forest Zoology, Technical University of Dresden, Tharandt, Germany
Schuldt, Bernhard;
Affiliation
Ecosystem Dynamics and Forest Management Research Group, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany
Seibold, Sebastian;
Affiliation
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III), Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Rauhenebrach, Germany
Stengel, Elisa;
Affiliation
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management (MINA), Norwegian University of Life Sciences NMBU, Ås, Norway
Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne;
Affiliation
Ecosystem Dynamics and Forest Management Research Group, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany
Weisser, Wolfgang;
Affiliation
Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology (Zoology III), Julius Maximilians University Würzburg, Rauhenebrach, Germany
Thorn, Simon

The species-energy hypothesis predicts increasing biodiversity with increasing energy in ecosystems. Proxies for energy availability are often grouped into ambient energy (i.e., solar radiation) and substrate energy (i.e., non-structural carbohydrates or nutritional content). The relative importance of substrate energy is thought to decrease with increasing trophic level from primary consumers to predators, with reciprocal effects of ambient energy. Yet, empirical tests are lacking. We compiled data on 332,557 deadwood-inhabiting beetles of 901 species reared from wood of 49 tree species across Europe. Using host-phylogeny-controlled models, we show that the relative importance of substrate energy versus ambient energy decreases with increasing trophic levels: the diversity of zoophagous and mycetophagous beetles was determined by ambient energy, while non-structural carbohydrate content in woody tissues determined that of xylophagous beetles. Our study thus overall supports the species-energy hypothesis and specifies that the relative importance of ambient temperature increases with increasing trophic level with opposite effects for substrate energy.

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License Holder: 2023 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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