Poxvirus sensitivity of a novel diploid sheep embryonic heart cell line

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), camelpox virus (CPV), and orf virus (ORFV) are members of the family Poxviridae. These viruses are usually isolated or produced in embryonated eggs or primary cells because continuous cell lines are less sensitive to infection. Disadvantages of the use of eggs or primary cells include limited availability, potential endogenous contaminants, and a limited ability to perform multiple passages. In this study, we developed a diploid cell culture from sheep embryonic hearts (EHs) and demonstrated its high proliferative and long-term storage capacities. In addition, we demonstrated its sensitivity to representatives of three genera of the family Poxviridae: Capripoxvirus (LSDV), Orthopoxvirus (CPV), and Parapoxvirus (ORFV). The cell culture had a doubling time of 24 h and reached 40 passages with satisfactory yield. This is comparable to that observed in primary lamb testis (LT) cells at passage 5 (P5). After infection, each poxvirus titer was 7.0-7.6 log TCID50/mL for up to five passages and approximately 6.8, 6.4, and 5.6 for the three viruses at P6-P25, P30, and P40, respectively. The sensitivity of sheep EH cells to poxvirus infection did not decrease after long-term storage in liquid nitrogen and was higher than that of primary LT cells, which are used for capripoxvirus and parapoxvirus detection and growth, and Vero cells, which are used for orthopoxvirus detection and growth. Thus, EH diploid cells are useful for poxvirus isolation and production without embryonated eggs or primary cells.



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