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Deoxynivalenol affects cell metabolism in vivo and inhibits protein synthesis in IPEC-1 cells

Deoxynivalenol is present in forage crops in concentrations that endanger animal welfare but is also found in cereal-based food. The amphipathic nature of mycotoxins allows them to cross the cell membrane and interacts with different cell organelles such as mitochondria and ribosomes. In our study, we investigated the gene expression of several genes in vivo and in vitro that are related to the metabolism. We observed a significantly higher COX5B and MHCII expression in enterocytes of DON-fed pigs compared to CON-fed pigs and a marked increase in GAPDH and SLC7A11 in DON-fed pigs, but we could not confirm this in vitro in IPEC-1. In vitro, functional metabolic analyses were performed with a seahorse analyzer. A significant increase of non-mitochondrial respiration was observed in all DON-treatment groups (50–2000 ng/mL). The oxygen consumption of cells, which were cultured on membranes, was examined with a fiber-glass electrode. Here, we found significantly lower values for DON 200- and DON 2000-treatment group. The effect on ribosomes was investigated using biorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) to tag newly synthesized proteins. A significantly reduced amount was found in almost all DON-treatment groups. Our findings clearly show that apical and basolateral DON-treatment of epithelial cell layer results in decreasing amounts of newly synthesized proteins. Furthermore, our study shows that DON affects enterocyte metabolism in vivo and in vitro.



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