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Inactivation of zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in complete feed for weaned piglets: Efficacy of ZEN hydrolase ZenA and of sodium metabisulfite (SBS) as feed additives

Female pigs respond sensitive both to DON and ZEN with anorexia and endocrine disruption, respectively, when critical diet concentrations are exceeded. Therefore, the frequent co-contamination of feed by DON and ZEN requires their parallel inactivation. The additive ZenA hydrolyzes ZEN while SBS inactivates DON through sulfonation. Both supplements were simultaneously added (+, 2.5 g SBS and 100 U ZenA/kg) to a control diet (CON-, 0.04 mg DON and < 0.004 mg ZEN/kg; CON+, 0.03 mg DON and < 0.004 mg ZEN/kg) and a Fusarium toxin contaminated diet (FUS-, 2.57 mg DON and 0.24 mg ZEN/kg; FUS+, 2.04 mg DON and 0.24 mg ZEN/kg). The 4 diets were fed to 20 female weaned piglets each (6 kg initial body weight) for 35 days; the piglets were sacrificed thereafter for collecting samples. Supplements improved performance and modified metabolism and hematology independent of dietary DON contamination. The mechanisms behind these changes could not be clarified and require further consideration. SBS reduced DON concentration in feed by approximately 20% and to the same extent in blood plasma and urine suggesting that no further DON sulfonate formation occurred in the digestive tract before absorbing DON in the upper digestive tract or that additionally formed DON sulfonates escaped absorption. DON sulfonates were detected in feces suggesting that unabsorbed DON sulfonates reached feces and/or that unabsorbed DON was sulfonated in the hindgut. The observed reduction rate of 20% was evaluated to be insufficient for feeding practice. Galenic form of SBS added to dry feed needs to be improved to support the DON sulfonation in the proximal digestive tract.ZenA was active in the digestive tract as demonstrated by the presence of its hydrolyzed none-estrogenic reaction products hydrolyzed ZEN (HZEN) and decarboxylated and hydrolyzed ZEN (DHZEN) both in feces, systemic circulation, and urine of group FUS+ compared to group FUS-. The presence of these hydrolysis products was paralleled by a significant decrease in high-estrogenic ZEN concentrations which, in turn, was related to a decrease in relative weights of uteri and ovaries when compared to group FUS-. Thus, ZenA was proven to be effective; both in terms of biomarkers and biological effects.



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