Mycobacterium tuberculosis–Induced Prostaglandin J2 and 15-Deoxy-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibit Inflammatory Signals in Human M1 Macrophages via a Negative Feedback Loop

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a leading cause of death globally and a major health concern. In humans, macrophages are the first line invaded by M. tuberculosis. Upon infection, macrophages upregulate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and consequently elevate the formation of PGs, including PGE2 and PGD2. Although the role of proinflammatory PGE2 in M. tuberculosis infection has been reported, the roles of PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-PGJ2 (collectively named J2-PGs), the metabolites of PGD2 with anti-inflammatory features, remain elusive. In this study, we show that M. tuberculosis (H37Rv strain)–conditioned medium stimulates human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to elevate COX-2 expression along with robust generation of PGJ2, exceeding PGD2 formation, and to a minor extent also of 15-deoxy-PGJ2. Of interest, in M1-MDM phenotypes, PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-PGJ2 decreased M. tuberculosis (H37Rv strain)–conditioned medium–induced COX-2 expression and related PG formation by a negative feedback loop. Moreover, these J2-PGs downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, but elevated the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the M2 markers arginase-1 and CD163. These anti-inflammatory effects of J2-PGs in M1-MDM correlated with impaired activation of TGF-β–activated kinase 1/NF-κB/MAPK pathways. Finally, we found that J2-PGs regulate COX-2 expression, at least partially, via PGD2 receptor (DP1) and chemoattractant receptor homologue expressed on Th2 cells/DP2 receptors, but independent of the J2-PG receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Together, our findings reveal that M. tuberculosis induces COX-2 expression in human M1-MDMs, along with robust formation of J2-PGs that mediates anti-inflammatory effects via a negative feedback loop.



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