Analysis of Nipah Virus Replication and Host Proteome Response Patterns in Differentiated Porcine Airway Epithelial Cells Cultured at the Air-Liquid Interface : [Preprint]

Respiratory tract epithelium infection plays a primary role in Nipah virus (NiV) pathogenesis and transmission. Knowledge about infection dynamics and host responses to NiV infection in respir-atory tract epithelia is scarce. Studies in non-differentiated primary respiratory tract cells or cell lines indicate insufficient interferon (IFN) responses. However, studies are lacking to determin-ing complex host response patterns in differentiated respiratory tract epithelia to understand NiV replication and spread in swine. Here we characterized infection and spread of NiV in differenti-ated primary porcine bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) cultivated at the air-liquid-interface (ALI). After the initial infection of only a few apical cells, lateral spread for 12 days with epithelium disruption was observed without releasing substantial amounts of infectious virus from the api-cal or basal sides. Deep time course proteomics revealed pronounced upregulation of genes re-lated to type I/II- IFN, immunoproteasomal subunits, TAP-mediated peptide transport and MHC I antigen presentation. Spliceosomal factors were downregulated. We propose a model in which NiV replication in PBEC is slowed by a potent and broad type I/II-IFN host response with con-version from 26S proteasomes to immunoproteasomal antigen processing and improved MHC I presentation for adaptive immunity priming. NiV induced cytopathic effects could reflect the focal release of cell-associated NiV, which may contribute to efficient airborne viral spread between pigs.



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