Characterization and acceleration of genome shuffling and ploidy reduction in synthetic allopolyploids by genome sequencing and editing
Polyploidy and the subsequent ploidy reduction and genome shuffling are the major driving forces of genome evolution. Here, we revealed short-term allopolyploid genome evolution by sequencing a synthetic intergeneric hybrid (Raphanobrassica, RRCC). In this allotetraploid, the genome deletion was quick, while rearrangement was slow. The core and high-frequency genes tended to be retained while the specific and low-frequency genes tended to be deleted in the hybrid. The large-fragment deletions were enriched in the heterochromatin region and probably derived from chromosome breaks. The intergeneric translocations were primarily of short fragments dependent on homoeology, indicating a gene conversion origin. To accelerate genome shuffling, we developed an efficient genome editing platform for Raphanobrassica. By editing Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group M (FANCM) genes, homoeologous recombination, chromosome deletion and secondary meiosis with additional ploidy reduction were accelerated. FANCM was shown to be a checkpoint of meiosis and controller of ploidy stability. By simultaneously editing FLIP genes, gene conversion was precisely introduced, and mosaic genes were produced around the target site. This intergeneric hybrid and genome editing platform not only provides models that facilitate experimental evolution research by speeding up genome shuffling and conversion but also accelerates plant breeding by enhancing intergeneric genetic exchange and creating new genes.