The First Eighteen Months of African Swine Fever in Wild Boar in Saxony, Germany and Latvia—A Comparison
African swine fever (ASF) emerged in Latvia in 2014. In 2020, the virus has been detected in the German federal state, Saxony. In both regions, the virus was probably introduced by infected wild boar coming from affected neighboring countries. As the current ASF control strategy at EU level had not yet been developed at the time of ASF introduction into Latvia, disease control measures in both study areas differed over time. Assessing the course of ASF in Saxony and the implemented control strategies, the first 18 months of the ASF epidemic were epidemiologically compared between Saxony and Latvia. ASF wild boar surveillance data were analyzed and the prevalence of ASF virus-positive wild boar was estimated. For estimating the wild boar density, the numbers of wild boar per km² were calculated for the respective geographical areas. The number of samples collected from hunted wild boar and wild boar found dead was higher in Saxony. The ASF virus prevalence in Latvia was significantly higher than in Saxony, indicating that Saxony has had more time for getting prepared for dealing with an ASF incursion. Experience from other countries and the rapid implementation of new control strategies may have helped Saxony deal with ASF.