Nutritional resources modulate the responses of three bee species to pesticide exposure
The response of bee species to various stressors is assumed to depend on the availability of sufficient nutrients in their environment. We compare the response of three bee species (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris, Osmia bicornis) under laboratory conditions. Survival, physiology, and sensitivity, after exposure to the fungicide prochloraz, the insecticide chlorantraniliprole, and their mixture with different nutritional resources (sugar only, sugar with amino acids or pollen) were observed. Prochloraz reduced the bee survival of A. mellifera and O. bicornis fed with pollen, but not with other diets. Chlorantraniliprole impaired the survival of A. mellifera fed with sugar or pollen diet, but not with amino acid diet. The mixture impaired survival of A. mellifera and O. bicornis in association with every diet. B. terrestris was only affected by chlorantraniliprole and its mixture with prochloraz fed with sugar diet. The activity of P450 reductase was higher in A. mellifera fed with amino acids in all treatments, whereas no effect emerged in O. bicornis and B. terrestris. Our results indicate that the sensitivity of bee species after exposure to agrochemicals is affected by diet. Thus, balanced and species-dependent nutrition ameliorated the effects. Further field studies are necessary to evaluate the potential effects of such mixtures on bee populations.
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