Acinetobacter baumannii from the one health perspective in Nigeria: A systematic review of literature in the last decade (2011-2021)
Multidrug drug-resistant (MDR)-Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is one of the most feared nosocomial bacterial agents worldwide, and the World Health Organization classified carbapenem-resistant strains as a priority ”1” critical pathogen. In Nigeria, the paucity of information on this pathogen makes it difficult to estimate its potential impact on public health and veterinary medicine. This systemic review was done to prepare an impact assessment for One Health based on the occurrence of A. baumannii in different environments and the antimicrobial resistance. A detailed search of articles on A. baumannii in Nigeria was conducted using search strings in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Google search engine, and Google scholars. This study revealed that 14 out of the 36 states in Nigeria reported A. baumannii. Specifically, 19/24 articles described isolates from clinical settings, 4/24 from the environment, and 1/24 from animal sources. A. baumannii occurrence of 9.15% (503/5496) was recorded from 8.4% (418/4950), 16.06% (80/498), and 10.42% (5/48) of samples of clinical, environmental, and animal origin by culture, respectively. The most common antibiotics to which A. baumannii was resistant were chloramphenicol, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, gentamycin, and tetracycline. Seventeen resistance determinants were described for A. baumannii isolates originating mostly from clinical sources with blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 gene makers frequently reported. This study demonstrates the lack of data on A. baumannii from animals. Clinical MDR- A. baumannii isolates, particularly in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), are a severe public health concern in Nigeria. Thus, findings from this review will form a baseline for future surveillance research.