Effect of Iron Limitation, Elevated Temperature, and Florfenicol on the Proteome and Vesiculation of the Fish Pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida
We analyzed the proteomic response of the Gram-negative fish pathogen A. salmonicida to iron limitation, an elevated incubation temperature, and the antibiotic florfenicol. Proteins from different subcellular fractions (cytosol, inner membrane, outer membrane, extracellular and outer membrane vesicles) were enriched and analyzed. We identified several iron-regulated proteins that were not reported in the literature for A. salmonicida before. We could also show that hemolysin, an oxidative-stress-resistance chaperone, a putative hemin receptor, an M36 peptidase, and an uncharacterized protein were significantly higher in abundance not only under iron limitation but also with an elevated incubation temperature. This may indicate that these proteins involved in the infection process of A. salmonicida are induced by both factors. The analysis of the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) with and without applied stresses revealed significant differences in the proteomes. OMVs were smaller and contained more cytoplasmic proteins after antibiotic treatment. After cultivation with low iron availability, several iron-regulated proteins were found in the OMVs, indicating that A. salmonicida OMVs potentially have a function in iron acquisition, as reported for other bacteria. The presence of iron-regulated transporters further indicates that OMVs obtained from ‘stressed’ bacteria might be suitable vaccine candidates that induce a protective anti-virulence immune response.