To Be Seen or Not to Be Seen: Latent Infection by Tobamoviruses
Tobamoviruses are among the most well-studied plant viruses and yet there is still a lot to uncover about them. On one side of the spectrum, there are damage-causing members of this genus: such as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), on the other side, there are members which cause latent infection in host plants. New technologies, such as high-throughput sequencing (HTS), have enabled us to discover viruses from asymptomatic plants, viruses in mixed infections where the disease etiology cannot be attributed to a single entity and more and more researchers a looking at non-crop plants to identify alternative virus reservoirs, leading to new virus discoveries. However, the diversity of these interactions in the virosphere and the involvement of multiple viruses in a single host is still relatively unclear. For such host–virus interactions in wild plants, symptoms are not always linked with the virus titer. In this review, we refer to latent infection as asymptomatic infection where plants do not suffer despite systemic infection. Molecular mechanisms related to latent behavior of tobamoviruses are unknown. We will review different studies which support different theories behind latency.