Brain gain - Is the cognitive performance of domestic hens affected by a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene?
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays an important role in regulating serotonergic transmission via removal of serotonin (5-HT) from synaptic clefts. Alterations in 5-HTT expression and subsequent 5-HT transmission have been found to be associated with changes in behaviour, such as fearfulness or activity, in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, alterations in 5-HTT expression have been suggested to be able to lead to better learning performance, with more fearful persons being better at learning. Similar effects of the variation in the 5-HTT on fearfulness have been found in chickens, and in this study, we investigated effects on learning. Therefore, we tested 52 adult laying hens, differing in their functional 5-HTT genotype (W/W, W/D and D/D) in an operant learning paradigm in three different phases (initial learning, reversal learning and extinction) and in a tonic immobility test for fearfulness. We found that the 5-HTT polymorphism affects the initial learning performance of laying hens, with homogeneous wild-type (W/W) hens being the slowest learners, and the most fearful birds. W/W hens, showed significantly more choices to solve the initial learning task (LME, p = 0.031) and had the highest latencies in a tonic immobility test (p=0.039), indicating the highest fearfulness. Our results provide interesting first insights into the role of 5-HTT in chickens and its sensitive interaction with the environment. We further suggest that the 5-HTT gene can be an interesting target gene for future breeding strategies as well as for further experimental studies.