Application of Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination in Water Buffaloes
To date, no reproductive biotechnology has had such a massive and significant impact on herds’ genetic progress and technological transformation as Artificial Insemination (AI). Nonetheless, the water buffalo is characterized by a low intensity of estrus signs, affecting the detection of animals in estrus, compromising the success of conventional artificial insemination on a large scale, thus, limiting genetic progress through this technique. Furthermore, low reproductive performance in water buffalo has also been described, mainly attributed to a late onset of puberty, reproductive seasonality, long calving intervals, and estrus’ low expression. Therefore, several protocols have been developed for fixed-Time Artificial Insemination (TAI) to improve water buffalo’s reproductive performance and omit the need for heat detection. These hormonal treatments allow controlling follicular dynamics and luteal function, synchronizing estrus and ovulation, and, most importantly, avoiding the complicated detection of estrus in this species. Herein, we provide the basics for fixed-Time Artificial Insemination (TAI) application in water buffaloes, including the fundamental knowledge and aspects of applying the technique successfully. Basic concepts, advantages, disadvantages, physiological mechanisms of the hormonal protocols to synchronize and induce the ovulation, as well as a brief description of factors affecting the efficiency of the fixed-TAI programs, are included in an easy way fashion for clinicians, technicians, and veterinary or animal sciences students.
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