Human and Animal Brucellosis in Nigeria: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis in the Last Twenty-One Years (2001–2021)
The global burden of human and animal brucellosis remains enormous. The disease, which is endemic in Nigeria, lacks appropriate attention and national data. This review estimated the burden and distribution of human and animal brucellosis in Nigeria in the last twenty years (2001–2021). Publications reporting the detection of brucellosis in Nigeria were sorted from different search engines, including PubMed, ResearchGate, Scopus, and Google Scholar, to generate data on its prevalence, spatial distribution, and predisposing factors. The results of the national seroprevalence of human and animal brucellosis as revealed in this study were 17.6% (554/3144) and 13.3% (8547/64,435), respectively. Specifically, 15.8% (7178/45,363) seroprevalence of brucellosis was recorded in northern Nigeria as against 8.7% (1902/21,740) seroprevalence in the southern part. It also indicated that 78.7% of the detected brucellae were un-typed. The Brucella species detected were B. abortus (15.2%), B. melitensis (4%), B. suis (1.8%), and B. canis (0.4%). This study revealed that brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria. Culture and molecular methods for detecting brucellosis and reports on antimicrobial susceptibility testing remain a conjecture. This review will help researchers redirect their research focus and serve as a guide for policymakers on measures for managing brucellosis in Nigeria.