Simultaneous mass spectrometric detection of proteins of ten oilseed species in meat products
Food fraud is a common issue in the modern food industry. The undeclared use of foreign proteins in meat products is a major concern in this context. Oilseeds are ideal for this purpose due to their high protein content and since huge amounts of oil meal are obtained as a by-product of oil production. Therefore, a UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of chia, coconut, flaxseed, hemp, peanut, pumpkin, rapeseed, sesame, soy, and sunflower proteins in meat products. Potential tryptic peptide markers were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The final twenty peptide markers selected, which are specific for one of the ten species targeted, were each measured by multiple reaction monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, twelve new heat-stable marker peptides for chia, coconut, flaxseed, pumpkin, rapeseed, sesame and sunflower have not been reported previously. Emulsion-type sausages with 0.01, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% protein addition by each oilseed species were produced for matrix calibration. No false-positive results were recorded. In the quantification of the ten oilseed species, 466 of 480 measuring data points of the recovery rate in unknown sausages (0.15 and 0.85% protein addition by each oilseed species) were in the accepted range of 80–120%.