Avian Bornavirus Research—A Comprehensive Review
Avian bornaviruses constitute a genetically diverse group of at least 15 viruses belonging to the genus Orthobornavirus within the family Bornaviridae. After the discovery of the first avian bornaviruses in diseased psittacines in 2008, further viruses have been detected in passerines and aquatic birds. Parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) possess the highest veterinary relevance amongst the avian bornaviruses as the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a chronic and often fatal disease that may engulf a broad range of clinical presentations, typically including neurologic signs as well as impaired gastrointestinal motility, leading to proventricular dilatation. It occurs worldwide in captive psittacine populations and threatens private bird collections, zoological gardens and rehabilitation projects of endangered species. In contrast, only little is known about the pathogenic roles of passerine and waterbird bornaviruses. This comprehensive review summarizes the current knowledge on avian bornavirus infections, including their taxonomy, pathogenesis of associated diseases, epidemiology, diagnostic strategies and recent developments on prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasures.