High Efficiency of Low Dose Preparations of an Inactivated Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Vaccine Candidate
Capripox virus-induced diseases are commonly described as the most serious poxvirus diseases of production animals, as they have a significant impact on national and global economies. Therefore, they are classified as notifiable diseases under the guidelines of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Controlling lumpy skin disease viral infections is based on early detection, slaughter of affected herds, and ring vaccinations. Until now, only live attenuated vaccines have been commercially available, which often induce adverse effects in vaccinated animals. Furthermore, their application leads to the loss of the “disease-free” status of the respective country. For these reasons, inactivated vaccines have increasingly generated interest. Since 2016, experimental studies have been published showing the high efficacy of inactivated capripox virus vaccines. In the present study, we examined the minimum protective dose of a BEI-inactivated LSDV-Serbia field strain adjuvanted with a low-molecular-weight copolymer adjuvant. Unexpectedly, even the lowest dose tested, with a virus titer of 104 CCID50 before inactivation, was able to provide complete clinical protection in all vaccinated cattle. Moreover, none of the vaccinated cattle showed viremia or viral shedding, indicating the high efficacy of the prototype vaccine even with a relatively low antigen amount.