Barbecue conditions affect contents of oxygenated and non-oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat and non-meat patties
The contents of eight oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs; anthracene-9,10-dione, benzo[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 11H-benzo[b]fluorene-11-one, 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one, 7H-benzo[de]anthracene-7-one, 9,10-dihydro-8H-benzo[a]pyren-7-one, fluoren-9-one, and naphthacene-5,12-dione) and six PAHs (anthracene, fluorene, and PAH4) were investigated in barbecued meat and non-meat patties. The patties were prepared with ten setups (six replicates, each) of barbecue conditions defined by grill type, grate height, heating medium, and barbecue time. The highest median contents were observed with a disposable grill (OPAHs: 46.3 µg/kg; PAHs: 40.7 µg/kg) and a charcoal grill (OPAHs: 29.6 µg/kg; PAHs: 23.3 µg/kg). Fluoren-9-one and anthracene-9,10-dione were the dominant compounds within OPAHs, but also the four toxicologically most relevant OPAHs were detected with a total up to 11.8 µg/kg. Pairs of OPAHs and corresponding PAHs did not show strong correlations, as individual OPAHs and PAHs were affected differently by the barbecue conditions. No suitable markers for OPAH prediction could be found. We recommend to include OPAHs in future PAH investigations.