Assessment of the possible health risks associated with the consumption of botanical preparations of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom)
The current report summarises the work performed in the context of the European Food Risk Assessment Fellowship Programme (EU-FORA), which included the evaluation of health risks associated with the consumption of botanical preparations of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom). Mitragyna speciosa is a tree native to Southeast Asia, where its leaves and preparations of the leaves have been used for centuries, among others, as a stimulant or as a traditional herbal medicine. Preparations of the plant have recently gained increasing popularity in other parts of the world, and are presently also accessible via online platforms, e.g. as food supplements. Kratom has been considered a botanical of possible health concern by the FDA and EFSA, which together with its increasing popularity, makes kratom a subject of international concern. Major alkaloids of the plant, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, are agonists of the μ-opioid human receptor and are assumed to be mainly responsible for its psychoactive effects. The aim of the present project was to conduct an assessment of potential health risks associated with oral use of kratom-based preparations. The animal and human data that were evaluated in the course of the current assessment indicate that kratom consumption has the potential to not only lead to adverse neurological effects, including addiction and withdrawal syndrome, but also to elicit distinct organ toxicity with respect to e. g. liver and kidney as target organs. Nevertheless, actual risk characterisation is impeded by considerable uncertainties. Such uncertainties, based on the variability in composition of kratom preparations, insufficient information on dose–response relationships and on limited data on long-term use effects, currently do not allow the derivation of distinct health based guidance values for kratom/kratom preparations. Further information from well-designed studies, conducted with kratom preparations that have been clearly defined with respect to their composition, would be required to enable a more refined risk assessment of this botanical.