Mammaliicoccus spp. from German Dairy Farms Exhibit a Wide Range of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Non-Wildtype Phenotypes to Several Antibiotic Classes
Mammaliicocci might play a major role in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene transmission between organisms of the family Staphylococcaceae, such as the potentially pathogenic species Staphylococcaceae aureus. The interest of this study was to analyze AMR profiles of mammaliicocci from German dairy farms to evaluate the AMR transmission potential. In total, 65 mammaliicocci isolates from 17 dairy farms with a history of MRSA detection were analyzed for AMR genotypes and phenotypes using whole genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 19 antibiotics. The various genotypic and phenotypic AMR profiles of mammaliicocci from German dairy farms indicated the simultaneous occurrence of several different strains on the farms. The isolates exhibited a non-wildtype phenotype to penicillin (58/64), cefoxitin (25/64), chlorampheni-col (26/64), ciprofloxacin (25/64), clindamycin (49/64), erythromycin (17/64), fusidic acid (61/64), gentamicin (8/64), kanamycin (9/64), linezolid (1/64), mupirocin (4/64), rifampicin (1/64), sul-famethoxazol (1/64), streptomycin (20/64), quinupristin/dalfopristin (26/64), tetracycline (37/64), tiamulin (59/64), and trimethoprim (30/64). Corresponding AMR genes against several antimicrobial classes were detected. Linezolid resistance was associated with the cfr gene in the respective isolate. However, discrepancies between genotypic prediction and phenotypic resistance profiles, such as for fusidic acid and tiamulin, were also observed. In conclusion, mammaliicocci from dairy farms may carry a broad variety of antimicrobial resistance genes and exhibit non-wildtype phenotypes to several antimicrobial classes; therefore, they may represent an important source for horizontal gene transfer of AMR genes to pathogenic Staphylococcaceae.