Feeding Brassica vegetables to rats leads to the formation of characteristic DNA adducts (from 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate) in many tissues
Juices of Brassica vegetables are mutagenic and form characteristic DNA adducts in bacteria and mammalian cells. In this study, we examined whether such adducts are also formed in vivo in animal models. Rats fed raw broccoli ad libitum in addition to normal laboratory chow for 5 weeks showed one major adduct spot and sometimes an additional minor adduct spot in liver, kidney, lung, blood and the gastrointestinal tract, as determined by ³²P-postlabelling/thin-layer chromatography. Adducts with the same chromatographic properties were formed when herring sperm DNA (or dG-3’-phosphate) was incubated with 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate (phytochemical present in Brassica plants), in the presence of myrosinase (plant enzyme that hydrolyses glucosinolates to bioactive breakdown products). UPLC–MS/MS analysis corroborated this finding: 1-Methoxy-3-indolylmethyl-substituted purine nucleosides were detected in the hepatic DNA of broccoli-fed animals, but not in control animals. Feeding raw cauliflower led to the formation of the same adducts. When steamed rather than raw broccoli was used, the adduct levels were essentially unchanged in liver and jejunum, but elevated in large intestine. Due to inactivation of myrosinase by the steaming, higher levels of the glucosinolates may have reached the large bowl to be activated by glucosidases from intestinal bacteria. In conclusion, the consumption of common Brassica vegetables can lead to the formation of substantial levels of DNA adducts in animal models. The adducts can be attributed to a specific phytochemical, neoglucobrassicin (1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate).