Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) Surgery during High Liquid Sucrose Diet Leads to Gut Microbiota-Related Systematic Alterations
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been proven successful in weight loss and improvement of co-morbidities associated with obesity. Chronic complications such as malabsorption of micronutrients in up to 50% of patients underline the need for additional therapeutic approaches. We investigated systemic RYGB surgery effects in a liquid sucrose diet-induced rat obesity model. After consuming a diet supplemented with high liquid sucrose for eight weeks, rats underwent RYGB or control sham surgery. RYGB, sham pair-fed, and sham ad libitum-fed groups further continued on the diet after recovery. Notable alterations were revealed in microbiota composition, inflammatory markers, feces, liver, and plasma metabolites, as well as in brain neuronal activity post-surgery. Higher fecal 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) correlated with higher Bacteroidota and Enterococcus abundances in RYGB animals, pointing towards the altered enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut signaling. Favorable C-reactive protein (CRP), serine, glycine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate plasma profiles in RYGB rats were suggestive of reverted obesity risk. The impact of liquid sucrose diet and caloric restriction mainly manifested in fatty acid changes in the liver. Our multi-modal approach reveals complex systemic changes after RYGB surgery and points towards potential therapeutic targets in the gut-brain system to mimic the surgery mode of action.