Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasma Species, Pasteurella multocida, and Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Calves with Respiratory Manifestations
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a complex syndrome associated with high mortality in young calves and causes severe economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. The current study investigated the prevalence and molecular characterization of common bacterial pathogens associated with respiratory symptoms in young calves from Sadat City, one of the largest industrial cities in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt. In between December 2020 and March 2021, 200 mixed-breed young calves of 6–12 months were examined clinically. Of them, sixty (30%) calves showed signs of respiratory manifestations, such as coughing, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharges, fever, and abnormal lung sound. Deep nasal (Nasopharyngeal) swabs were collected from the affected calves for bacteriological investigation. Phenotypic characterization and identification revealed Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Pasteurella multocida, and Staphylococcus aureus in 8.33%, 5%, 5%, and 5% of the tested samples, respectively. The PCR technique using species-specific primer sets successfully amplified the target bacterial DNA in all culture-positive samples, confirming the identity of the isolated bacterial species. Partial gene sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of M. bovigenitalium, P. multocida, and S. aureus, and mb-mp 81 gene of M. bovis revealed high nucleotide similarity and genetic relationship with respective bacterial species reported from Egypt and around the world, suggesting transmission of these bacterial species between animal host species and localities. Our study highlights the four important bacterial strains associated with respiratory disorders in calves and suggests the possible spread of these bacterial pathogens across animal species and different geographic locations. Further studies using WGS and a large number of isolates are required to investigate the realistic lineage of Egyptian isolates and globally.