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Female self-incompatibility type in heterostylous Primula is determined by the brassinosteroid-inactivating cytochrome P450 CYP734A50

Affiliation
University of Potsdam, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
Huu, Cuong Nguyen;
GND
121050297
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural Crops, Germany
Plaschil, Sylvia;
Affiliation
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, OT Gatersleben, Corrensstrasse 3, 06466 Stadt Seeland, Germany
Himmelbach, Axel;
GND
1163246050
Affiliation
University of Potsdam, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
Kappel, Christian;
GND
123095824
Affiliation
University of Potsdam, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
Lenhard, Michael

Most flowering plants are hermaphrodites, with flowers having both male and female reproductive organs. One widespread adaptation to limit self-fertilization is self-incompatibility (SI), where self-pollen fails to fertilize ovules.1,2 In homomorphic SI, many morphologically indistinguishable mating types are found, although in heteromorphic SI, the two or three mating types are associated with different floral morphologies. 3–6 In heterostylous Primula, a hemizygous supergene determines a short-styled S-morph and a long-styled L-morph, corresponding to two different mating types, and full seed set only results from intermorph crosses.7–9 Style length is controlled by the brassinosteroid (BR)-inactivating cytochrome P450 CYP734A50,10 yet it remains unclear what defines the male and female incompatibility types. Here, we show that CYP734A50 also determines the female incompatibility type. Inactivating CYP734A50 converts short S-morph styles into long styles with the same incompatibility behavior as L-morph styles, and this effect can be mimicked by exogenous BR treatment. In vitro responses of S- and L-morph pollen grains and pollen tubes to increasing BR levels could only partly explain their different in vivo behavior, suggesting both direct and indirect effects of the different BR levels in S- versus L-morph stigmas and styles in controlling pollen performance. This BR-mediated SI provides a novel mechanism for preventing self-fertilization. The joint control of morphology and SI by CYP734A50 has important implications for the evolutionary buildup of the heterostylous syndrome and provides a straightforward explanation for why essentially all of the derived self-compatible homostylous Primula species are long homostyles.

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