Isolation, characterization, and efficacy of three lytic phages infecting multidrug-resistant salmonella serovars from poultry farms in Egypt
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars are considered a significant threat to veterinary and public health. Developing new antimicrobial compounds that can treat the infection caused by these notorious pathogens is a big challenge. Bacteriophages can be adsorbed on and inhibit the growth of bacteria, providing optimal and promising alternatives to chemical antimicrobial compounds against foodborne pathogens due to their abundance in nature and high host specificity. The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize new phages from poultry farms and sewage and to evaluate their efficacy against S. Enteritidis isolates. The study reports three lytic phages designated as ϕSET1, ϕSET2, and ϕSET3 isolated from poultry carcasses and sewage samples in Qalubiya governorate Egypt. The effectiveness of phages was evaluated against multidrug-resistant S. Enteritidis strains. Electron microscopy showed that these phages belong to the Siphoviridae family. Phages were tested against 13 bacterial strains to determine their host range. They could infect four S. Enteritidis and one S. Typhimurium; however, they did not infect other tested bacterial species, indicating their narrow infectivity. The bacteriophage's single-step growth curves revealed a latent period of 20 min for ϕSET1 and 30 min for ϕSET2 and ϕSET3. The isolated Salmonella phages prevented the growth of S. Enteritidis for up to 18 hrs. The findings revealed that Salmonella phages could be used as alternative natural antibacterial compounds to combat infection with MDR S. Enteritidis in the poultry industry and represent a step forward to using large panels of phages for eliminating Salmonella from the food chain.