The impacts of energy sanctions on the black-market premium: evidence from Iran

This study extends the literature by analyzing the effects of energy sanctions on the black-market premium on the Iranian Rial – U.S. dollar exchange rate. Using a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model from 1959 to 2017, we find that falling oil revenues as a result of sanctions have an increasing impact on the black-market premium.

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