Arsenic biotransformation and mobilization: the role of bacterial strains and other environmental variables
Over several decades, arsenic (As) toxicity in the biosphere has affected different flora, fauna, and other environmental components. The majority of these problems are linked with As mobilization due to bacterial dissolution of As-bearing minerals and its transformation in other reservoirs such as soil, sediments, and ground water. Understanding the process, mechanism, and various bacterial species involved in these processes under the influence of some ecological variables greatly contributes to a better understanding of the fate and implications of As mobilization into the environments. This article summarizes the process, role, and various types of bacterial species involved in the transformation and mobilization of As. Furthermore, insight into how Fe(II) oxidation and resistance mechanisms such as methylation and detoxification against the toxic effect of As(III) was highlighted as a potential immobilization and remediation strategy in As-contaminated sites. Furthermore, the significance and comparative advantages of some useful analytical tools used in the evaluation, speciation, and analysis of As are discussed and how their in situ and ex situ applications support assessing As contamination in both laboratory and field settings. Nevertheless, additional research involving advanced molecular techniques is required to elaborate on the contribution of these bacterial consortia as a potential agronomic tool for reducing As availability, particularly in natural circumstances.
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