Pollution impact on microbial communities composition in natural and anthropogenically modified soils of Southern Russia
Metagenomic studies of soil microbocenoses are extremely relevant nowadays. The study of pollution impact on soil microbiomes is of particular interest. The structure of microbial communities in soils with different levels of pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) was studied. High bacterial biodiversity was found in all the studied soil samples, but its lowest values are found in soil samples taken on the territory of technogenically polluted Lake Atamanskoye. Assessment of soil pollution showed the highest content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) for the soils Lake Atamanskoye. The high content of pollutants negatively affects the abundance of representatives of the phyla Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Nitrospirae. Such phyla as Proteobacteria; Candidate Divisions TM7, OD1, WPS-2; Chlamydiae; Cyanobacteria are characterized by positive direct correlation with the content of pollutants, especially with PAHs. A cooperative effect of decrease in the number of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria with an increase in Armatimonadetes probably corresponds to PTEs contamination. The proportion of Candidate Division OD1, Chlamydiae, Cyanobacteria, and Candidate Division WPS-2 was increased in the soil microbiome under the influence of severe combined pollution. Pollutants negatively affect the abundance of dominant unclassified_o__Gaiellales and unclassified_o__WD2101 genera. Iamia, Salinibacterium, Arthrobacter, Kaistobacter, Thiobacillus genera are characterized by a low abundance, but they are presumably the most resistant to soil pollution. It was revealed that the level of soil pollution largely determines the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the soils of the studied territories. Operating taxonomic units have been established that have prognostic value for assessing the state, level of soil pollution, and their biological safety.