Article CC BY 4.0
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Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes

GND
1139863770
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Germany
Kanfra, Xorla;
Affiliation
Division of Plant Pathology & Crop Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
Obawolu, Taye;
GND
123257174
Affiliation
Department of Horticulture, Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig-Holstein, 25373 Ellerhoop, Germany
Wrede, Andreas;
GND
115742964
Affiliation
Centre for Business Management in Horticulture and Applied Research, Leibniz University Hannover, 30419 Hannover, Germany
Strolka, Bernhard;
GND
11452419X
Affiliation
Woody Plant and Propagation Physiology, Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Leibniz University Hannover, 30419 Hannover, Germany
Winkelmann, Traud;
GND
13219421X
Affiliation
Faculty of Agriculture/Environment/Chemistry, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW) Dresden—University of Applied Sciences, 01069 Dresden, Germany
Hardeweg, Bernd;
GND
1058940058
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Germany
Heuer, Holger

Apple replant disease (ARD) is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries caused by yet unknown soil biota that accumulate over replanting cycles. This study tested the contribution of nematodes to ARD, and cultivation of Tagetes as a control option. In a pot experiment, Tagetes patula or Tagetes tenuifolia were grown in ARD soil, incorporated or removed. Nematodes extracted from untreated ARD soil and washed on 20-m sieves induced ARD symptoms when inoculated to apple plantlets growing in a sterile substrate. In contrast, nematodes from Tagetes treated ARD soil did not reduce root growth compared to uninoculated plants, irrespective of Tagetes species and incorporation. In plots of five apple tree nurseries or orchards, either Tagetes or grass was grown on ARD soil. Nematodes extracted from the grass plots and inoculated to apple plantlets significantly reduced plant growth compared to nematodes from Tagetes plots for all five farms. Apple rootstocks showed overall a significantly higher increase in shoot base diameter when grown on Tagetes-treated plots compared to grass plots, while this effect differed among farms. Plant-parasitic nematodes were too low in abundance to explain plant damage. In conclusion, Tagetes alleviated ARD by changing the nematode community in soil.

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