Article CC BY 4.0
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Characterisation of different parts from Moringa oleifera regarding protein, lipid composition and extractable phenolic compounds

Affiliation
Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
Owon, Mostafa;
Affiliation
Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
Osman, Mohamed;
Affiliation
Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Ibrahim, Awatif;
Affiliation
Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Salama, Mohamed Abdelbaset;
GND
113399677
Affiliation
Max Rubner-Institut (MRI), Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Department of Safety and Quality of Cereals, Germany
Matthäus, Bertrand

Fatty acids, amino acids, as well as total phenolic content and antioxidant activities, were presented from Moringa oleifera different parts (whole seeds, kernels, coats, pods and leaves). The investigated parts were a good source of protein (29.2, 37.8, 11.9, 10.1 and 22.8 g/100 g for whole seeds, kernels, coats, pods and leaves, respectively) with isoleucine, leucine, arginine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine as amino acids in sufficient amount to meet the nutritional needs. Moringa seeds are also rich in oil. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in moringa seeds (66.2 and 65.8% for whole seeds and kernels, respectively). Leaves were rich in minerals such as P, K, Mg and Fe with the highest amount of total phenolic content. 70% ethanol, 80% methanol or water showed the highest yield with of total phenolic content from leaves reaching 11.8, 11.3 and 8.9 mg GAE/g, respectively. The lowest ED50 values were reported for extracts of leaves obtained by 70% ethanol and 80% methanol (0.51 and 0.54 mg), respectively, indicating more antioxidant activity than for the other solvents. For the ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay, leaves extract showed also the strongest effect for delaying the oxidation followed by extracts from pods and coats in a comparison with the control without antioxidants. From this comprehensive investigation of the different parts of MO, an assessment of the raw materials regarding their application as food is possible.

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