Article CC BY 4.0
refereed
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SSR-Based Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from 19 Countries in Europe

Affiliation
INRAE, University of Bordeaux, UMR BFP, Villenave d’Ornon, France
Barreneche, Teresa;
Affiliation
Faculty of Engineering and Science, Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, United Kingdom
Cárcamo de la Concepción, María;
Affiliation
INRAE, Unité Expérimentale Arboricole, Domaine de la Tour de Rance, Bourran, France
Blouin-Delmas, Marine;
Affiliation
Department of Crop Science, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
Ordidge, Matthew;
GND
12724980X
Affiliation
Balsgård-Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Fjälkestadsvägen 459, Kristianstad, Sweden
Nybom, Hilde;
Affiliation
Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Dobele, Latvia
Lacis, Gunars;
Affiliation
Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Dobele, Latvia
Feldmane, Daina;
GND
1239078951
Affiliation
Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy Ltd., Holovousy 129, Hořice, Czech Republic
Sedlak, Jiri;
Affiliation
NIBIO Ullensvang, The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ullensvangvegen 1005, Lofthus, Norway
Meland, Mekjell;
Affiliation
Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Uus 2, Polli, Estonia
Kaldmäe, Hedi;
Affiliation
Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Uus 2, Polli, Estonia
Kahu, Kersti;
Affiliation
National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Gödöllő, Budapest, Hungary
Békefi, Zsuzsanna;
Affiliation
Institute for Genetic Resources, University of Banja Luka, Bulevar vojvode Petra Bojovica 1A, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Stanivuković, Sanda;
Affiliation
Institute for Genetic Resources, University of Banja Luka, Bulevar vojvode Petra Bojovica 1A, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ðurić, Gordana;
GND
1059103419
Affiliation
Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI), Institute for Breeding Research on Fruit Crops, Germany
Höfer, Monika;
Affiliation
NPPC, Výskumný ústav Rastlinnej Výroby–VÚRV, Research Institute of Plant Production–RIPP, Bratislavská 122, Piešt’any, Slovakia
Galik, Martin;
Affiliation
Division of Viticulture and Pomology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, Vienna, Austria
Schüller, Elisabeth;
GND
138001847
Affiliation
Division of Viticulture and Pomology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, Vienna, Austria
Spornberger, Andreas;
Affiliation
Research Station for Fruit Growing, 175 Voinesti, Iasi, Romania
Sirbu, Sorina;
Affiliation
Hellenic Agricultural Organization ‘DEMETER’, Department of Deciduous Fruit Trees, Institute of Plant Breeding and Genetic Resources, 38 RR Station, Naoussa, Greece
Drogoudi, Pavlina;
Affiliation
Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development & Departamento de Fitotecnia, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, Évora, Portugal
Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina;
Affiliation
Département Arboriculture Arboriculture Fruitière Viticulture Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknès, B.P. S/40, Meknès, Morocco
Kodad, Ossama;
Affiliation
Department for Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biometrics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, Zagreb, Croatia
Vokurka, Aleš;
Affiliation
CRA-W, Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques, Plant Breeding & Biodiversity, Bâtiment Emile Marchal, Rue de Liroux, Gembloux, Belgium
Lateur, Marc;
Affiliation
Genetics, Genomics and Breeding Department, NIAB EMR, New Road, East Malling, Kent, United Kingdom
Fernández Fernández, Felicidad;
Affiliation
CREA-Research Centre for Olive, Fruit and Citrus Crops, via la Canapona 1 bis, Forlì, Italy
Giovannini, Daniela;
GND
1140763199
Affiliation
INRAE, University of Bordeaux, UMR BFP, Villenave d’Ornon, France
Quero-García, José

Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a temperate fruit species whose production might be highly impacted by climate change in the near future. Diversity of plant material could be an option to mitigate these climate risks by enabling producers to have new cultivars well adapted to new environmental conditions. In this study, subsets of sweet cherry collections of 19 European countries were genotyped using 14 SSR. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess genetic diversity parameters, (ii) to estimate the levels of population structure, and (iii) to identify germplasm redundancies. A total of 314 accessions, including landraces, early selections, and modern cultivars, were monitored, and 220 unique SSR genotypes were identified. All 14 loci were confirmed to be polymorphic, and a total of 137 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.8 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles (N = 9.8), PIC value (0.658), observed heterozygosity (Hₒ = 0.71), and expected heterozygosity (Hₑ = 0.70) were higher in this study compared to values reported so far. Four ancestral populations were detected using STRUCTURE software and confirmed by Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), and two of them (K1 and K4) could be attributed to the geographical origin of the accessions. A N-J tree grouped the 220 sweet cherry accessions within three main clusters and six subgroups. Accessions belonging to the four STRUCTURE populations roughly clustered together. Clustering confirmed known genealogical data for several accessions. The large genetic diversity of the collection was demonstrated, in particular within the landrace pool, justifying the efforts made over decades for their conservation. New sources of diversity will allow producers to face challenges, such as climate change and the need to develop more sustainable production systems.

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