Article CC BY 4.0
refereed
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Modelling exposure by spraying activities - status and future needs

Affiliation
Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, Nikolai-Fuchs-Straße 1, Hannover, Germany
Hahn, Stefan;
Affiliation
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BAuA, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Dortmund, Germany
Meyer, Jessica;
Affiliation
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BAuA, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Dortmund, Germany
Roitzsch, Michael;
Affiliation
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, PB 1, Bilthoven, Netherlands
Delmaar, Christiaan;
Affiliation
Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, Nikolai-Fuchs-Straße 1, Hannover, Germany
Koch, Wolfgang;
Affiliation
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BAuA, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Dortmund, Germany
Schwarz, Janine;
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 3 Exposure, Unit 31 Transport of Dangerous Goods, Germany
Heiland, Astrid;
ORCID
0000-0003-4933-5015
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 3 Exposure, Unit 31 Transport of Dangerous Goods, Germany
Schendel, Thomas;
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 3 Exposure, Unit 34 Exposure Assessment and Exposure Standardisation, Germany
Jung, Christian;
Affiliation
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BAuA, Friedrich-Henkel-Weg 1-25, Dortmund, Germany
Schlüter, Urs

Spray applications enable a uniform distribution of substances on surfaces in a highly efficient manner, and thus can be found at workplaces as well as in consumer environments. A systematic literature review on modelling exposure by spraying activities has been conducted and status and further needs have been discussed with experts at a symposium. This review summarizes the current knowledge about models and their level of conservatism and accuracy. We found that extraction of relevant information on model performance for spraying from published studies and interpretation of model accuracy proved to be challenging, as the studies often accounted for only a small part of potential spray applications. To achieve a better quality of exposure estimates in the future, more systematic evaluation of models is beneficial, taking into account a representative variety of spray equipment and application patterns. Model predictions could be improved by more accurate consideration of variation in spray equipment. Inter-model harmonization with regard to spray input parameters and appropriate grouping of spray exposure situations is recommended. From a user perspective, a platform or database with information on different spraying equipment and techniques and agreed standard parameters for specific spraying scenarios from different regulations may be useful.

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