Effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminum silicates (HSCAS) in experimentally induced cadmium toxicity in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant and is toxic to animal species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxico-pathological effects of Cd and the effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminum silicates (HSCAS) on Cd-induced pathological alterations in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). A total of 180 male C. japonica at 25 d of age were divided into nine equal groups, i.e. A–I. Group A was kept as control while groups B and C were administered with Cd @ 100 and 200 mg/kg feed. Groups D and E were fed HSCAS @ 5 and 10 g/kg feed. Groups F, G, H, and I were administered with HSCAS along with Cd in different combinations. The total duration of the experiment was 35 d (at experimental day 0, bird age was 21 d). Gross changes in Cd-fed groups included enlargement of the liver and atrophied testes. Histopathological picture of groups B (100 mg Cd/kg) and C (200 mg Cd/kg) showed fatty change, individual cell necrosis, and proliferation of bile ducts at hepatic triad. Testes showed testicular degeneration which included absence of spermatogenesis, pyknotic, and dark nuclei between the spermatids and absence of spermatids and spermatozoa. No parameter studied showed any adverse effect of HSCAS given to the quail @ 5 and 10 g/kg feed. Groups of quail-fed Cd and HSCS concurrently in different combinations did not show any adverse effect suggesting an amelioration of Cd-induced pathological changes in the birds. It was concluded that concurrent administration of HSCAS and Cd protected the quail from adverse effects of Cd toxicity.