Transferability of issr, scot and ssr markers for chrysanthemum × morifolium ramat and genetic relationships among commercial russian cultivars
Characterization of genetic diversity in germplasm collections requires an efficient set of molecular markers. We assessed the efficiency of 36 new SCoT markers, 10 new ISSR markers, and 5 microsatellites for the characterization of genetic diversity in chrysanthemum core collection of 95 accessions (Russian and foreign cultivars). Seven new SCoT (SCoT12, 20, 21, 23, 29, 31, 34) and six new ISSR markers ((GA)8T, (CT)8G, (CTTCA)3, (GGAGA)3, (TC)8C, (CT)8TG) were efficient for the genetic diversity analysis in Chrysanthemum × morifolium collection. After STRUCTURE analysis, most Russian cultivars showed 20–50% of genetic admixtures of the foreign cultivars. Neighbor joining analysis based on the combination of SSR, ISSR, and SCoT data showed the best accordance with phenotype and origin compared to the separate analysis by each marker type. The position of the accessions within the phylogenetic tree corresponded with the origin and with some important traits, namely, plant height, stem and peduncle thickness, inflorescence type, composite flower and floret types, flower color, and disc color. In addition, several SCoT markers were suitable to separate the groups distinctly by the phenotypical traits such as plant height (SCoT29, SCoT34), thickness of the stem and peduncle (SCoT31, SCoT34), and leaf size and the floret type (SCoT31). These results provide new findings for the selection of markers associated with important traits in Chrysanthemum for trait-oriented breeding and germplasm characterization.