Metabolites of 2- and 3-Monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD) in Humans: Urinary Excretion of 2-Chlorohydracrylic Acid and 3-Chlorolactic Acid after Controlled Exposure to a Single High Dose of Fatty Acid Esters of 2- and 3-MCPD
Scope: Fatty acid esters of 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) are formed during the deodorization of vegetable oils. After lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis in the intestine, 2- and 3-MCPD are absorbed, but their ensuing human metabolism is unknown. Methods and results: The compounds 2-chlorohydracrylic acid (2-ClHA) and 3-chlorolactic acid (3-ClLA) resulting from oxidative metabolism of 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD, respectively, are identified and quantified in human urine samples. An exposure study with 12 adults is conducted to determine the urinary excretion of 2-ClHA and 3-ClLA. The participants eat 12 g of hazelnut oil containing 24.2 mg kg−¹ 2-MCPD and 54.5 mg kg−¹ 3-MCPD in the form of fatty acid esters. Average daily amounts of “background” excretion before the exposure are 69 nmol 2-ClHA and 3.0 nmol 3-ClLA. The additional mean excretion due to the uptake of the hazelnut oil amounts to 893 nmol 2-ClHA (34.0% of the 2-MCPD dose) and 16.4 nmol 3-ClLA (0.28% of the 3-MPCD dose). Conclusions: The products of oxidative metabolism of 2- and 3-MCPD, 2-ClHA, and 3-ClLA, are described for the first time in humans. Due to the lack of specificity, the metabolites may not be used as exposure biomarkers to low doses of bound 2- and 3-MCPD, respectively.