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The Prospective Association of Dietary Sugar Intake in Adolescence With Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood

Affiliation
Public Health Nutrition, Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany
Della Corte, Karen A.;
Affiliation
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department 5 Food Safety, Unit 54 Risks of Subpopulations and Human Studies, Germany, Public Health Nutrition, Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany
Penczynski, Katharina;
Affiliation
Department of Food Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, United Kingdom
Kuhnle, Gunter;
Affiliation
DONALD Study, Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Dortmund, Germany
Perrar, Ines;
Affiliation
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany
Herder, Christian;
Affiliation
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany
Roden, Michael;
Affiliation
Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
Wudy, Stefan A.;
Affiliation
DONALD Study, Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Dortmund, Germany
Remer, Thomas;
Affiliation
DONALD Study, Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Dortmund, Germany
Alexy, Ute;
Affiliation
Public Health Nutrition, Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany
Buyken, Anette E.

Purpose: To examine the prospective relevance of dietary sugar intake (based on dietary data as well as urinary excretion data) in adolescent years for insulin sensitivity and biomarkers of inflammation in young adulthood. Methods: Overall 254 participants of the DONALD study who had at least two 3-day weighed dietary records for calculating intakes of fructose, glucose, sucrose, total, free, added sugars, total sugars from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), juice, and sweets/sugar or at least two complete 24 h urine samples (n = 221) for calculating sugar excretion (urinary fructose and urinary fructose + sucrose) in adolescence (females: 9–15 years, males: 10–16 years) and a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18–36 years), were included in multivariable linear regression analyses assessing their prospective associations with adult homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S) and a pro-inflammatory score (based on CRP, IL-6, IL-18, leptin, chemerin, adiponectin). Results: On the dietary intake level, no prospective associations were observed between adolescent fructose, sucrose, glucose, added, free, total sugar, or total sugar from SSB, juice or sweets/sugar intake and adult HOMA2-%S (p > 0.01). On the urinary level, however, higher excreted fructose levels were associated with improved adult HOMA2-%S (p = 0.008) among females only. No associations were observed between dietary or urinary sugars and the adult pro-inflammatory score (p > 0.01). Conclusion: The present study did not provide support that dietary sugar consumed in adolescence is associated with adult insulin sensitivity. The one potential exception was the moderate dietary consumption of fructose, which showed a beneficial association with adult fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity.

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