Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis in District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan
Bovine brucellosis is a contagious zoonotic disease that causes economic losses through abortion and infertility. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in district Gujranwala of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 220 bovine sera (112 from buffaloes, 108 from cattle) from 46 unvaccinated herds were collected. Parallel testing by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA) showed a 58.7% (27/46) herd-level and 22.7% (50/220) animal-level seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was higher (p < 0.001, OR = 7.62) in adult animals (37.2%) compared to younger animals (4.9%). A herd size of >10 animals (p = 0.021, OR = 7.83), less housing space (p = 0.037, OR = 6.39) and history of abortion at the farm (p = 0.023, OR = 5.6) were found as risk factors associated with the seropositivity of brucellosis. There was a substantial agreement between the RBPT and I-ELISA results (Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ) = 64.16, percent agreement = 89.5%). In conclusion, a relatively higher seroprevalence was found compared to the previous reports from the country. Standardization and validation of the advanced diagnostic tests would be needed. Biosecurity, personal protection, quarantine measures and routine screening of animals at the farm level and disease awareness programs and consumption of pasteurized milk in the human population will be helpful in preventing the transmission/zoonosis of the disease.