Patterns in Genotype Composition of Indian Isolates of the Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Bombyx mori Bidensovirus
The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), is a model organism of lepidopteran insects with high economic importance. The viral diseases of the silkworm caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) inflict huge economic losses and significantly impact the sericulture industry of India and other countries. To understand the distribution of Indian isolates of the BmNPV and to investigate their genetic composition, an in-depth population structure analysis was conducted using comprehensive and newly developed genomic analysis methods. The seven new Indian BmNPV isolates from Anantapur, Dehradun, Ghumarwin, Jammu, Kashmir, Mysore and Salem grouped in the BmNPV clade, and are most closely related to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and Rachiplusia ou multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus on the basis of gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the partial polh, lef-8 and lef-9 gene fragments. The whole genome sequencing of three Indian BmNPV isolates from Mysore (-My), Jammu (-Ja) and Dehradun (-De) was conducted, and intra-isolate genetic variability was analyzed on the basis of variable SNP positions and the frequencies of alternative nucleotides. The results revealed that the BmNPV-De and BmNPV-Ja isolates are highly similar in their genotypic composition, whereas the population structure of BmNPV-My appeared rather pure and homogenous, with almost no or few genetic variations. The BmNPV-De and BmNPV-Ja samples further contained a significant amount of BmBDV belonging to the Bidnaviridae family. We elucidated the genotype composition within Indian BmNPV and BmBDV isolates, and the results presented have broad implications for our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of BmNPV and co-occurring BmBDV isolates.