Capripox (Lumpy Skin Disease, Sheep Pox, and Goat Pox)
Lumpy skin disease (LSD), sheep pox (SPP), and goat pox (GTP) are economically important pox diseases of domestic ruminants caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sheep pox virus (SPPV), and goat pox virus (GTPV). These three viruses compose the genus Capripoxvirus within the family Poxviridae. As for all poxviruses, immunity against CaPVs is both cell mediated and humoral. After vaccination or natural infection, antibodies appear within 15days and reach a peak 21–30days postinfection. In commercially available CaPV vaccines, the origin of the vaccine virus should be clearly indicated. An even more essential part of vaccine quality control is to confirm the identity of the vaccine seed virus, using molecular methods, as there have been cases when molecular investigations revealed that the true identity of the vaccine virus was not what was believed. Postvaccination monitoring is based on passive or active clinical surveillance in vaccinated herds.