First detection of Bartonella spp. In small mammals from rice storage and processing facilities in Myanmar and Sri Lanka
(1) Background: Bartonella spp. are zoonotic bacteria with small mammals as main reser-voirs. Bartonella spp. prevalence in small mammals from Myanmar and Sri Lanka are yet unknown. (2) Methods: Small mammals were snap trapped in Sri Lanka and Myanmar in urban surroundings. Spleens-derived DNA was screened for Bartonella spp. using conventional PCR based on three tar-get genes. Positive samples were sequenced. (3) Results: 994 small mammals were collected com-prising 6 species: Bandicota bengalensis, Bandicota indica, Rattus exulans, Rattus rattus, Mus booduga, and Suncus murinus. In Myanmar, the Bartonella prevalence in Bandicoot rats (68.47%) was higher than in Rattus rattus (41.67%), Rattus exulans (21.33%), and Suncus murinus (3.64%). Furthermore the prevalence in Myanmar (34%, n = 495) was twice as high as in Sri Lanka (16%, n = 499). In Sri Lanka, Bartonella spp. occurred almost exclusively in R. rattus. In Myanmar, Bartonella kosoyi was mainly detected (56%), followed by Bartonella sp. KM2529 (15%), Bartonella sp. SE-Bart D (12%) and Bar-tonella henselae (1%). In Sri Lanka, B. phoceensis (60%) and Bartonella sp. KM2581 (33%) were predom-inant. (4) Conclusions: Bartonella spp. were detected in all investigated small mammal species from Myanmar and Sri Lanka for the first time. Bartonella kosoyi and B. henselae are zoonotic. As these small mammals originated from urban settlements, human bartonellosis seems likely to occur.